Experts predict a steady growth of prices for the main types of energy carriers. It is not surprising, as the explored gas and oil reserves will be used within a little over 30 years, and undiscovered reserves will be enough for 60-70 years maximum.
Experts predict a steady increase in prices for the main types of energy carriers. This is not surprising, because the explored reserves of gas and oil will be used within a little over 30 years, and undiscovered will be enough for 60-70 years maximum. Therefore, alternative sources of energy have become of great importance recently. Let’s take a brief look at the promising alternative energy sources for the home.
Today, solar thermal installations (solar systems) are quite actively used in hot water supply, heating and air conditioning of houses. These systems are divided into passive and active.
In passive solar systems the sun’s rays fall directly on objects and devices, there is no way to regulate their intensity. Therefore, they do not guarantee uniform heat supply and full use of energy, but they are simple and cheap. Types of passive solar systems: greenhouses, greenhouses, blackened tanks-tanks for heating water in summer, glazed loggias and porches.
In active systems, the rays hit the solar collector (helio-receiver), where they are converted into heat energy. This heat is then transferred to the hot water and heating systems, or to a battery, from where it is used further as needed.
In addition to thermal energy, solar systems can also generate electricity.
Wind power systems for individual users are mainly used to generate electricity. With a capacity of up to 50 kW, they can successfully cope with the energy supply of the cottage. Wind turbines are also used to drive pumps to lift water from various sources.
In such installations, wind rotates the wind wheel, which through a system of gears transmits torque to the water pump or the shaft of the electric generator. They are subdivided into:
- winged small-bladed (2-4 blades) – for the initial start-up wind speed is required at least 5-8 m/s, they have high efficiency and simple design, in strong winds create a higher level of noise;
- winged multi-vane (18-24 blades) – wind speed of 2-4 m/s is enough, they do not create noise, but the efficiency factor is lower, and the material capacity is increased;
- rotor (roundabout) blades move in a circle, operate at a constant low wind speed and without noise, but also low efficiency.
Thermal energy of the earth
As an alternative source of low-temperature heat can be considered ground, air, underground and surface waters, etc. Heat pumps are used to collect this heat energy, increase its potential and transfer it to the consumer. In addition to heating are used for hot water and air conditioning.
Types of heat pumps:
- ground – heat is collected by means of a horizontal collector laid below the frost level of the ground or a vertical probe located in a specially drilled hole; are able to meet the need of the cottage for heat, but in winter it is better to have a backup electric heater;
- water heaters – take heat from natural reservoirs or underground waters
Air – expedient to use in warm climates.
Biomass today is used in plants for the production of electricity and heat, as a vehicle fuel (biodiesel). In the process of producing biofuel it is possible to produce antifreeze, plastic, glue, etc.
With the help of special biogas plants for the home biogas is extracted from biomass, which the plant converts into heat and electricity.
If there is access to running water, it is possible to use mini-hydropower plants to produce energy for the home.
Can be used in places where the difference between the tide and the tide is at least 5 meters (there are only 40 such places on earth).
Types of such structures: tidal barriers, dams, and tidal turbines.
This energy is released from the surface of the waves or through changes in pressure below the surface. It can be used almost everywhere.